Prevalence and methodologies for detection, characterization and subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii in foods and environmental sources
Listeria monocytogenes, one of the most important foodborne pathogens, can cause listeriosis, a lethal disease for humans. L. ivanovii, which is closely related to L. monocytogenes, is also widely distributed in nature and infects mainly warm-blooded ruminants, causing economic loss. Thus, there are high priority needs for methodologies for rapid, specific, cost-effective and accurate detection, characterization and subtyping of L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii in foods and environmental sources. In this review, we (A) described L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, world-wide incidence of listeriosis, and prevalence of various L. monocytogenes strains in food and environmental sources; (B) comprehensively reviewed different types of traditional and newly developed methodologies, including culture-based, antigen/antibody-based, LOOP-mediated isothermal amplification, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry, DNA microarray, and genomic sequencing for detection and characterization of L. monocytogenes in foods and environmental sources; (C) comprehensively summarized different subtyping methodologies, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing, ribotyping, and phage-typing, and whole genomic sequencing etc. for subtyping of L. monocytogenes strains from food and environmental sources; and (D) described the applications of these methodologies in detection and subtyping of L. monocytogenes in foods and food processing facilities.
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Keywords: Foodborne pathogens; Listeria monocytogenes; Listeria ivanovii; Molecular characterization; Subtyping